All Activity

This stream auto-updates   

  1. Last week
  2. Hi like-minded, If you are interested in uncovering the truth behind the product packaging safety concerns of our favourite food brands, please support my proposed campaign. There are many substances that are not yet recognized or adequately risk assessed by the national regulators in terms of the food contact materials. Producers can use various substances with no limits based on self-control with no explicit bans on substances, although it may turn out to be toxic and migrate into your food. Let's test them and show to the world what the food packaging is made of. I believe such examination will influence manufacturers and will make them more responsible for their products. It is not just BPA, BPA has got many nasty brothers such as BPS, BPB and else, and there phtalates and nonylphenols and loads and loads more.
  3. Earlier
  4. This article is now in the preparation stage till Jun 24th 2018.This article will be researched and published on or around Jun 24th 2018. 
  5. The article "Does omega-3 do actually us any good?" is now uploaded here https://whatishealthy.info/topic/196-does-omega-3-do-actually-us-any-good/
  6.   The two main omega-3 fatty acids are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). It has been generally accepted that fish and sea foods are the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids and should be consumed 2-3 times a week, as these compounds have been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[1] The main source of these omega-3 fatty acids is oily fish such as salmon, mackerel and sardines. Olive oil and some seeds and nuts such as flax seeds, chia seeds, walnuts and pumpkin seeds are also rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), another omega-3 fatty acid, which the body can then convert to DHA or EPA however to a limited extent of 2-10%.[2] The perceived benefits of omega-3 fatty acids originated from the observation of Japanese and Mediterranean populations. Japanese and Mediterranean consumption of fish is high while Mediterranean diet also encourages the use of olive oil. These populations have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and consequently a tendency to live longer.[3]  In addition to being associated with healthier cardiac function, studies have shown omega-3 fatty acids also play a role in healthy ageing and foetal development.[2] In fact studies have demonstrated that the many beneficial attributes of omega-3 fatty acids include reduced incidence of atherosclerosis and reduced inflammation in both overweight sedentary adults and healthy older adults.[4] [5] Furthermore animal studies have also demonstrated that an increase in omega-3 fatty acid intake can reduce the risks of Alzheimer’s disease.[6] Omega-3 supplements have also been linked to a reduction of the risk of prostate cancer. [7] Despite these potentially obvious positive effects, recent evidence has emerged that questions the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids obtained from either consumption of fish or supplements.[1] Recent studies have highlighted that increased omega-3 fatty acid consumption in people already at risk of heart disease does not reduce the incidence of stroke, heart attack or death.[8] Another study also demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids have no discernible impact on overall mortality or the incidence of cardiovascular disease or cancer.[9]  Furthermore, contrary to some studies, high levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the blood have actually been correlated with an increased risk of prostate cancer.[10] These recent findings have led some to believe that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may actually be harmful to the body during several medical conditions. This theory comes from the fact that, like all fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids are prone to lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is oxidative degradation of lipids, mostly of unsaturated fatty acids making up triglycerides and phospholipids. Consumption of oxidised lipids can result in increased oxidative stress, which is associated with many adverse health effects. Indeed prolonged high levels of oxidised lipids in the blood can lead to atherosclerosis.[11] [12]  Oily fish may also contain persistent organic pollutants or metals, the latter of which may facilitate the lipid peroxidation described above.[1] Furthermore, it has also been suggested that, as omega-3 supplements lack the range of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins and minerals present in whole fish, their efficacy and function may be compromised.[13] When speaking about omega-3 fatty acids consumption the issue of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids ratio has to be also taken into account. With the evolution and development of agriculture this ratio has shifted from 1:1 to about 1:15 which is thought to be one of the reasons for increased incidence of heart diseases and obesity. However the optimal ratio is not yet defined according to the UK Food Standards Agency and it is advised to increase the intake of omega-3 rather than focuse on decreasing the amount of omega-6 fatty acids in your diet.[14]   Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that play a crucial role in maintaining good health. As our bodies cannot produce them, we need to obtain them from dietary sources such as oily fish and plant oils. Given the potential for reduced efficacy when eaten in its pure form, omega-3 consumption through the diet is preferable to taking omega-3 nutritional supplements. Remember to use mild temperature ways of cooking for omega-3 rich foods to avoid lipid oxidation and preserve the benefit of omega-3. Whilst some of the health benefits previously attributed to omega fatty acids may now be under scrutiny, it is apparent it may be more to do with omega-3 to omega-6 ratios than doubting omega-3 benefits and so it is still a key part of a healthy diet and potential benefits appear to outweigh the potential risks.    [1] Maehre H, et al. (2016). ω-3 Fattyω-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(9), 22636- 22661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fijms160922636 [2]  Swanson, D. (2012). Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA: health benefits throughout life. Advances in Nutrition, 3(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.000893 [3] Tokudome, S., et al (2004). The Mediterranean vs the Japanese diet. European Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 1323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601970 [4] Sekikawa A, et al. (2008). Marine-derived n-3 fatty acids and atherosclerosis in Japanese, Japanese Americans, and Whites: a cross-sectional study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 52(6), 417-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2008.03.047 [5] Kiecolt-glaser, J.K. (2012). Omega-3 Supplementation Lowers Inflammation in Healthy Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 26(6), 998-995. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2012.05.011 [6] Lim G.P, et al. (2005). A diet enriched with the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid reduces amyloid burden in an aged Alzheimer mouse model. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25(12), 3032-3040. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4225-04.2005 [7] Augustsson K, et al.(2003). A Prospective Study of Intake of Fish and Marine Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer. American Association for Cancer Research, 12(1), 64-67. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/12/1/64 [8]  The risk and prevention study collaborative group. (2013). N–3 Fatty Acids in Patients with Multiple Cardiovascular Risk Factors. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(1), 1800-1808. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1205409 [9] Hooper, L. et al. (2006). Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review. BMJ, 332(752) https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38755.366331.2F [10] Brasky, TM. et al. (2013). Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk in the SELECT Trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(15), 1132-1141. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djt174 [11]  Awada M, et al. (2012). Dietary oxidized n-3 PUFA induce oxidative stress and inflammation: role of intestinal absorption of 4-HHE and reactivity in intestinal cells. Journal of Lipid Research, 53(10), 2069-2080. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M026179 [12] Lobo V, et al. (2010). Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy Review, 4(8), 118-126. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.70902 [13]  He, K. (2009). Fish, Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease—Eat Fish or Take Fish Oil Supplement? Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 52(2), 95-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2009.06.003 [14] Stanley, J., Elsom, R., Calder, P., Griffin, B., Harris, W., & Jebb, S. et al. (2007). UK Food Standards Agency Workshop Report: the effects of the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on cardiovascular health. British Journal Of Nutrition, 98(06). http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s000711450784284x
  7. ARTICLE POLL (winner selection on 24 June 2018)

    The winner of Jun 10th 2018 election is 'Busting consumer safety myths about BPA-free plastics', please bear with us while our scientist are working hard to deliver the facts for you on this article by June 24th 2018  
  8. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant. It is known to contaminate water and soil. Due to its physico-chemical properties glyphosate strongly adsorbs into soil and becomes almost immobile there, which means it tends to accumulate in soil. Although ground and surface water are polluted to a less extent, still glyphosate is found in water. Taking into account that application amounts of glyphosate are not controlled and that EFSA does not require buffer zones for organic produce soil protection, there is a likelihood that organic food is contaminated with glyphosate. In the light of the above, I propose to conduct water and soil tests for glyphosate concentration. Tests shall be conducted at (or in close proximity to) several different crop production areas, including organic.  
  9. The article "Unripe and overripe fruits, are they healthy?" is now uploaded here https://whatishealthy.info/topic/192-unripe-and-overripe-fruits-%E2%80%93-are-they-healthy/
  10. As with any living organism, the life cycle of fruit has continual enzyme activity. Once full ripeness has been reached, as the fruit begins to ferment, the sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide by the activity of enzymes, resulting in decay. This is why overripe fruit is soft and discoloured and has a strong odour. Many of the fungal pathogens responsible for this decay are present in the unripe fruit but do not become active until the fruit is fully ripened.[1] It is estimated that as much as 30% of all harvested fruit is discarded because of decay that occurs after harvesting.[1]  There are two main types of fruit ripening processes. In climacteric fruits such as apples, peaches, bananas and tomatoes, the ripening process is associated with increased ethylene production and increased cellular respiration.[2] [3] This is why these fruits continue to ripen after harvesting – especially if placed in a bag, which allows for the accumulation of ethylene and promotes further ripening.[4] Non-climacteric fruits such as grapes, citrus fruits and strawberries do not ripen further after harvesting.[2] An exception is the avocado, which does not commence the ripening process until after harvest.[5]  Both types of fruits undergo many changes during their development, including alterations in colour, firmness and texture.[2] In blackberries, for example, the levels of anthocyanin (a colour pigment that also acts as an antioxidant) have been shown to change during ripening.[6] In the Marion variety, anthocyanin increased from 74.7 to 317mg/100g fresh weight and in Evergreen blackberries from 69.9 to 164mg/100g during the complete ripening process. Levels of phenolic compounds (another group of antioxidants) dropped, but only very slightly, during the same period.[6] Other changes include alterations in enzyme activity, such as those seen in pineapples and papayas during ripening, reaching their maximum in the ripe fruits.[7] Papain (enzyme from papaya) and bromelain (enzyme from pineapple) are known for their beneficial antibacterial properties and found useful applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries.[7] [8] The ratio of starches and sugars also changes during the ripening process, with starch being converted to sugar and thus increasing fruit sweetness.[2] This means that ripe (and especially overripe) fruits have a higher glycaemic index, and their intake quickly raises blood sugar, increasing the risks of diabetes, especially when fruits are eaten in excessive amounts.[9]  For reasons of taste, both underripe and overripe fruits are not regularly consumed. Underripe food can often have a bitter, acidic taste, while overripe fruit can have an off-putting smell, taste and/or texture. Consumption of fruit in either state can cause gastric upsets and have an impact on gut flora. The Jamaican fruit ackee, for example, can cause vomiting and even death if eaten before it is ripe.[10] Bananas, however, have health benefits when eaten either under or overripe. One animal study concluded that the consumption of unripe bananas could aid colonic fermentation (helping to avoid inflammations) and have an impact on glycaemic control by improving insulin sensitivity, which is especially beneficial for individuals with diabetes.[11] Overripe bananas also have many health benefits, including neutralising gastric acidity and lining the stomach, thus reducing irritation from gastric ulcers. Some sources claim that underripe bananas have also been shown to promote healing and aid both constipation and diarrhoea; however, there is not enough consistency between different sources.[12] [13] By eating fruits, especially free from pesticides, you may reduce the risks of many illnesses thanks to their high content of vitamins, minerals and enzymes. But to avoid gastric upsets and other adverse effects associated with eating under or overripe fruit, it is advisable to choose fruit at its optimum stage of ripeness. This can sometimes be difficult to decipher, especially when purchasing packaged fruits from the supermarket, but taste and smell are good indications of fruit ripeness as well as their weight, since ripe fruits are heavier due to higher juice content. You may also complete some fruit ripening process by putting it into a bag (e.g., bananas or avocados). Knowing the fruits you eat, you will take the full benefits put into it by nature.   [1] Alkan, N., & Fortes, A. (2015). Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to post-harvest fungal pathogens. Frontiers In Plant Science, 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00889  [2] Cherian, S., Figueroa, C., & Nair, H. (2014). ‘Movers and shakers’ in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit. Journal Of Experimental Botany, 65(17), 4705-4722. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru280 [3] Theologis, A. (1992). One rotten apple spoils the whole bushel: The role of ethylene in fruit ripening. Cell, 70(2), 181-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(92)90093-r [4] Yahia, E. (2009). Modified and controlled atmospheres for the storage, transportation, and packaging of horticultural commodities. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. [5] Lu, Q., Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, D., Lee, R., & Gao, K. et al. (2009). California Hass Avocado: Profiling of Carotenoids, Tocopherol, Fatty Acid, and Fat Content during Maturation and from Different Growing Areas. Journal Of Agricultural And Food Chemistry, 57(21), 10408-10413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf901839h [6] Siriwoharn, T., Wrolstad, R., Finn, C., & Pereira, C. (2004). Influence of Cultivar, Maturity, and Sampling on Blackberry (RubusL. Hybrids) Anthocyanins, Polyphenolics, and Antioxidant Properties. Journal Of Agricultural And Food Chemistry, 52(26), 8021-8030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf048619y [7] Paull, R. (1993). Pineapple and papaya. Biochemistry Of Fruit Ripening, 291-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1584-1_10 [8] dos Anjos, M., da Silva, A., de Pascoli, I., Mikcha, J., Machinski, M., Peralta, R., & de Abreu Filho, B. (2016). Antibacterial activity of papain and bromelain on Alicyclobacillus spp. International Journal Of Food Microbiology, 216, 121-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.10.007 [9] Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar. (2017). The Nutrition Source. Retrieved 18 September 2017, from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/carbohydrates/carbohydrates-and-blood-sugar/ [10] Joskow, R., Belson, M., Vesper, H., Backer, L., & Rubin, C. (2006). Ackee Fruit Poisoning: An Outbreak Investigation in Haiti 2000–2001, and Review of the Literature. Clinical Toxicology, 44(3), 267-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650600584410 [11] Dan, M., Cardenette, G., Sardá, F., Giuntini, E., Bello-Pérez, L., & Carpinelli,  . et al. (2015). Colonic Fermentation of Unavailable Carbohydrates from Unripe Banana and its Influence over Glycemic Control. Plant Foods For Human Nutrition, 70(3), 297-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-015-0493-6 [12] Mitsou, E., Kougia, E., Nomikos, T., Yannakoulia, M., Mountzouris, K., & Kyriacou, A. (2011). Effect of banana consumption on faecal microbiota: A randomised, controlled trial. Anaerobe, 17(6), 384-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.03.018 [13] ORHAN, İ. (2001). Biological activities of Musa species. Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi, 039-050. http://dx.doi.org/10.1501/eczfak_0000000354  
  11. This article is now in the preparation stage till Jun 10th 2018.This article will be researched and published on or around Jun 10th 2018. 
  12. ARTICLE POLL (winner selection on 24 June 2018)

    The winner of May 27th 2018 election is 'Does omega-3 do actually us any good?', please bear with us while our scientist are working hard to deliver the facts for you on this article by June 10th 2018  
  13. GM foods could infiltrate your blood stream

    GMOs remain one of the most discussed health topic for several years, but at the same time it remains insufficiently studied. Why haven't anybody studied it yet in out? What's the reason? Maybe GM food producers hinder the research? 
  14. Chewing gum: hidden harms

    The article sounds frightening, but in real life a lot of people chew gums, my friends and I consume it regularly, and we haven't experienced any consequences described in the article.
  15. Hm... BPA was considered safe and then, as I understand, suddenly scientists discovered toxic health effect of BPA and the long story had started. I wonder how many more substances in plastic potentially can be found dangerous? Why people always do everything not timely? It would be much wiser to check all substances before mixing them into materials for food containers. 
  16. Chewing gum: hidden harms

    I was a chewing gum fan when I was a child, and I think it really turned into digestive problems for me. I had had an abdominal pain for a week, then my mum and doctor said no more gums. Sure, I wasn't happy with it, but it did the trick and pain was gonee, seems like it worked.
  17. So helpful on picnics and when you are on the road plastic cutlery is. On the other hand, it is quite harmful to our environment and health. Normally it is made of polystyrene which will not decompose in centuries. As all other plastic it can get into wild animals food chain and then finally into human's. But it makes you wonder if it is toxic to human health before you even start considering the environmental impact. Is it likely that polystyrene ends up in tap water? What are the deleterious effects of polystyrene to our health?
  18. The article "Meat food additives - beware of phosphates" is now uploaded here http://whatishealthy.info/topic/188-meat-food-additives-beware-of-phosphates/
  19. Phosphorus is an essential dietary element and may be either organic or inorganic. They are required for bone and teeth formation, involved in the utilisation of carbohydrate and fats, and are critical for the maintenance, repair and growth of all cells and tissues.[1] Naturally occurring organic phosphorous compounds are not completely absorbed by the body and do not pose any known risks for health. In fact reducing intake of these natural phosphates may even result in protein malnutrition.[2] However inorganic food-grade phosphates, usually in the form of either sodium or potassium salts, are readily absorbed and may present a risk to health.[2]  Inorganic phosphates are used as additives in many meat and poultry products such as sausages, hams and salami, but are not used in fresh meat. They serve many purposes including pH stabilisation, increasing water retention capacity, shelf life extension and the improvement of texture, colour, juiciness and flavour.[1] There is also a suggestion that these added phosphates are beneficial in that they provide an additional supply of essential phosphorous to the diet.[1] [3] However another, more worrying view is that the impact of phosphate additives on general public health has been underestimated, as high phosphorus intake may be associated with a increased risk of mortality.[2] [4] Indeed several studies verify the harmful effects of these food additives, which include an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the progression of vascular calcification and plaque development within the arteries.[2] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Elevated phosphorous levels have also been shown to promote bone loss and disordered mineral metabolism.[8] [9] In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or on dialysis, an excess of phosphorous can be dangerous[2] [5] [10] and contribute to renal impairment.[6] [7] [8] In fact one study showed that 12% of deaths in patients with advanced CKD (who have an annual mortality rate of 20%) were attributable to elevated serum phosphate.[2]  Lower socioeconomic groups may be more susceptible to these damaging effects, as they consume more “fast” and processed foods, known to have high phosphate content.[2] Between 1987 and 2007 average phosphorus consumption in the USA increased by 10–15%,[11] and as a result of recent concerns regarding health impact on the population, research is being carried out to find natural organic alternatives. The role of phosphate additives in meat products is largely commercial, enhancing visual ‘quality’, extending shelf life and enabling more water to be injected into the product. However these commercial benefits come with significant health risks. To avoid excessive phosphate intake, it is advisable to eat fresh meat instead of processed and avoid products containing phosphate additives whenever possible.     [1] Long, N. et al. (2011) Use of phosphates in meat products. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(86), 19874-19882. [2]  Ritz, E. et al. (2012) Phosphate additives in food - a health risk. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 109(4), 49-55. [3]  Carrigan, A. et al. (2014) Contribution of Food Additives to Sodium and Phosphorus Content of Diets Rich in Processed Foods. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 24(1), 13-19. [4] Chang, A. et al. (2014) High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99(2), 320-327. [5] Sullivan, C. (2007) Phosphorous Containing Food Additives and the Accuracy of Nutrient Databases: Implications for Renal Patients. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 17(5), 350-354. [6] Kuro-o, M. (2011) A phosphate-centric paradigm for pathophysiology and therapy of chronic kidney disease. Kidney International Supplements, 3(5), 420-426. [7] Calvo, M. et al. (2014) Assessing the Health Impact of Phosphorus in the Food Supply: Issues and Considerations. Advances in Nutrition, 5(1), 104-113. [8] Calvo, M. (2013) Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98(1), 6-15. [9] Giachelli, C. (2009) The Emerging Role of Phosphate in Vascular Calcification. Kidney International, 75(9), 890-897. [10] Takeda, E. et al. (2014) Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health. Advances in Nutrition, 5(1), 92-97. [11]  Noya, C. (2008). Evaluation of a High PH Solution as an Alternative for Phosphate Meat. (1st ed.). USA: ProQuest.
  20. This article is now in the preparation stage till May 27th 2018.This article will be researched and published on or around May 27th 2018. 
  21. ARTICLE POLL (winner selection on 24 June 2018)

    The winner of May 13th 2018 election is 'Unripe and overripe fruits, are they healthy?', please bear with us while our scientist are working hard to deliver the facts for you on this article by May 27th 2018
  22. Congratulations on having selected with the help of your votes our first ever social campaign. This campaign is now in the preparation stage till  31 May 2018.This campaign research results will be posted live by 30 Jun 2018. 
  23. This article is now in the preparation stage till May 13th 2018.This article will be researched and published on or around May 13th 2018. 
  24. ARTICLE POLL (winner selection on 24 June 2018)

    The winner of April 29th 2018 election is 'Meat food additives - beware of phosphates', please bear with us while our scientist are working hard to deliver the facts for you on this article by May 13th 2018  
  25. The article "Poisonous baby products and another chapter in BPA scandal" is now uploaded here http://whatishealthy.info/topic/187-poisonous-baby-products-and-another-chapter-in-bpa-scandal/
  26. We constantly come into contact with items that contain some form of plastic, many of which contain toxic additives such as bisphenols A, S and F (BPA, BPS and BPF) among many others. Bisphenol compounds are found in numerous household products that we give to our infants without thinking - baby bottles, sippy cups, plastic food storage containers, even the linings of baby formula tins. The chemicals present in these items can leach into the food or drink contained within them in a process that occurs at a higher rate during common processes such as boiling, heating and microwaving.[1]  Bisphenol compounds such as BPA are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), meaning they can interfere with hormone systems within the body.[2] [3] [4] EDCs can affect the body’s development, growth and hormone balance by mimicking, blocking or disrupting the body’s natural hormones.[5] [6] Unborn and young children seem to be the most susceptible; for example EDC exposure during early foetal development increases the probability of negative health outcomes later in life, including cancers, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, asthma and immune disorders.[7]  Because of these potential effects on health, BPA was banned from use in baby bottles in Canada, France and Denmark in 2010,[8] before being banned across the EU in 2011.[9] Although these statutory bans were minimal, big anti-BPA PR campaigns have led to an increase in the number of BPA-free plastic products becoming available, particularly BPA-free bottles. However, they may not be the “safe” alternative that they claim to be. One study, for example, found that EDCs still leach from BPA-free plastic products, explaining that BPA-free does not mean EDC free.[10] Indeed BPA-free products often use the alternatives BPS or BPF, which are currently still authorised for use in baby bottles, despite them causing many of the same harmful effects as BPA.[10] Indeed there are now concerns that BPA-free plastics may actually have greater levels of EDCs than plastics made with BPA.[11] Worse still, BPA is currently only banned from use in baby bottles in Europe; it is still permitted in children’s plastic plates and cutlery, plastic toys and teething rings and even baby food container. Shockingly, equally toxic BPS and BPF are completely unrestricted, like BPA was before its ban from use in baby bottles. Despite the fact that previously permitted levels of BPA were thought to be “safe”, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reconsidered what it deemed to be a “safe” level in 2015, reducing the permitted amount by over 90%. They stated that “current exposure to the chemical is too low to cause harm”, but went on to state that “BPA at high doses (more than 100 times the TDI) is likely to cause adverse effects in the kidney and liver” and that, worryingly, they could not exclude “possible effects of BPA on the reproductive, nervous, immune, metabolic and cardiovascular systems, as well as in the development of cancer”.[12] Yet even these new, lower levels may not truly reflect a “safe” level of exposure, as they do not take into account the additive effects of multiple exposures during frequent use, or exposure to multiple EDCs in one product. Therefore, the only way to be truly safe is to try to avoid plastic at all costs until EDC-free certified plastics are available. Just because a plastic is touted as BPA-free does not necessarily mean it is actually non-toxic. A safer and healthier alternative is to use glass containers wherever possible. Glass doesn’t contain the toxic additives that most plastics do, and is inert, which means that it doesn’t react with the food contained inside it like plastic does. It also means that it remains safe, even with high temperature washing, microwaving and UV light. Although, when using glass as an alternative, don’t forget to check what the lid is made of, as plastic may also be hiding in the form of a closure seal. Extra caution should also always be taken when using glass products around infants and children.   [1] Lim, DS. et al. (2009) Potential risk of bisphenol A migration from polycarbonate containers after heating, boiling, and microwaving. J Toxicol Environ Health. 72(21-22). 1285-91. [2] Mersha, MD. et al. (2015) Effects of BPA and BPS exposure limited to early embryogenesis persist to impair non-associative learning in adults. Behav Brain Funct. [epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1186/s12993-015-0071-y. [3] Qiu, W. et al. (2016) Actions of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System During Early Development in Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 157(2). 636-47. [4] Sheikh, IA. et al. (2016) Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers. PLoS One. 11(3). [epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151444. [5] Casals-Casas, C. & Desvergne, B. (2011) Endocrine disruptors: from endocrine to metabolic disruption. Ann Rev Physiol. 73. 135-62. [6] Roy, J. et al. (2009) Estrogen-like endocrine disrupting chemicals affecting puberty in humans--a review. Med Sci Monit. 15(6). RA137-45. [7] Landrigan, P. et al. (2003) Assessing the effects of endocrine disruptors in the National Children's Study. Environ Health Perspect. 111(13). 1678-8 [8] European Commission (2010) Bisphenol A and baby bottles: challenges and perspectives. Retrieved May 2016 from, http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC58897/eur%2024389_bpa%20%20baby%20bottles_chall%20%20persp%20(2).pdf  [9] European Commission (2011) Ban of Bisphenol A in baby bottles. Retrieved May 2016 from, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/dyna/consumervoice/create_cv.cfm?cv_id=716  [10] Bittner, GD et al. (2014) Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products. Environ Health. 13. 41-55. [11] Yang, CZ. et al. (2011) Most plastic products release estrogenic chemicals: a potential health problem that can be solved. Environ Health Perpect. 119(7). 989-96. [12] EFSA (2015) Scientific opinion on bisphenol A. Retrieved May 2016 from, http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/corporate_publications/files/factsheetbpa150121.pdf 
  27. Allergy occurrence increased over the last decades.Here are some statistics from https://www.foodallergy.org/life-food-allergies/food-allergy-101/facts-and-statistics - The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention reports that the prevalence of food allergy in children increased by 50 percent between 1997 and 2011. - Between 1997 and 2008, the prevalence of peanut or tree nut allergy appears to have more than tripled in U.S. children. Taking into account these figures, I think today people should pay great attention to understanding what allergy is and possible ways to avoid it. Please write an article about the causes of allergy and its endemic increase. And also about methods to prevent it.
  28. Load more activity